Copied from: Effects of video-enhanced reflective practice: current evidence and future challenges, Ruben Fukkink, Sanne Huijbregts and Liz Todd, in Video Enhanced Reflective Practice.

Video Enhanced Reflective Practice“Video feedback is a well-known instructional method applied in various programmes in tertiary education and postgraduate professional training to improve the communication skills of a broad group of ‘interpersonal professionals’ (Hargie, Saunders and Dickson 1983). These include teachers, psychologists, social workers, doctors and nurses, and professional caregivers, for whom effective communication plays a vital role in their work. This chapter discusses evidence for the effectiveness of video feedback (VF) for reflection on professional practice.

VERP is a specialized form of VF being defined for the first time in this book, so as yet there is no established evidence base. However, its similarity to much VF provides the evidence for many aspects of VERP. The two chapters that follow present some of the first small-scale semi-experimental evidence for VERP. The chapter by Gibson, Elliot and Archer evaluates the impact of VERP on burnout, self-efficacy and attunement for staff in a secure forensic in-patient service for young people aged 12–19. The chapter by Ferguson is an evaluation of the impact of VERP on a three-month pre-school literacy intervention.

Various researchers and trainers have explored the new educational opportunities offered by video. In its infancy, the use of video for instructional purposes and professional development was labelled a micro-training paradigm. It focused on specific, concrete behaviours with a relatively brief duration, usually studied with behavourial counts (e.g. head nodding, frequent eye contact, allowing the children to take turns). Later, video feedback research programmes have focused on more holistic skills such as sensitivity, developmental stimulation or empathy. In other programmes, trainees are instructed in client communication according to a professional communication model with distinct phases (e.g. initiating the session, gathering information and closing the session). Video feedback has increasingly been used to stimulate reflection (see Tripp and Rich 2012), particularly with pre-service teachers, building on the paradigm of the reflective practitioner (Schön 1983).

Feedback in general plays a vital role in skills teaching and in different learning theories (see Thurlings et al. 2013 for an overview). VF functions as a catalyst for critical reflection and provides trainers and trainees with a tool to engage in a dialogue (Fuller and Manning 1973; Hargie et al. 1983; Hosford 1980). Furthermore, video feedback allows an in-depth analysis of the behaviour of interest and the provision of constructive feedback related to verbal aspects (the content of what is being said), paralingual aspects (intonation, speaking pace and volume) and non-verbal aspects (e.g. body posture, eye contact and use of gestures). Video feedback may focus on receptive skills (e.g. looking at the other person and use of silences), informative skills (e.g. explaining things in a comprehensible way and speaking calmly) and relational skills (e.g. asking about the other’s experiences and displaying empathy) (see Duffy et al. 2004; Hulsman et al. 1999).

Reviews of experimental study into video feedback

Various video feedback interventions have been evaluated in different experimental studies. In a number of reports the effects of different training formats have been summarized, although not every review had an exclusive focus on VF (see Fukkink, Todd and Kennedy 2011 for a review). In a recent meta-analysis with a specific focus on video feedback for professionals, Fukkink, Trienekens and Kramer (2011) showed that VF is effective for improving professionals’ key interaction skills; more accurately, interventions that include video feedback appeared effective, because video feedback is always integrated in multimodal and multi-faceted interventions with other instructional components. The aggregate effect size, based on 217 experimental results from 33 studies involving a total of 1,058 people, was 0.40 standard deviation (se = 0.07). This aggregated outcome is equal to a medium effect size. For the verbal, non-verbal, and paralingual domains, the effect sizes were 0.42, 0.35, and 0.39, respectively. The aggregated effect sizes for receptive, informative and relational skills were 0.44, 0.47, and 0.35, respectively. To conclude, VF is an effective method that contributes to the development of a wide range of key professional skills including verbal, non-verbal and paralingual aspects. VF is also able to improve receptive, informative and relational skills of trainees. Experimental effects are somewhat smaller for the relational skills domain and for non-verbal aspects of interactional behaviour.”


Duffy, F., Gordon, G. H, Whelan, G., Cole-Kelley, K. and Frankel, R. (2004) ‘Assessing competence in communication and interpersonal skills: The Kalamazoo II Report.’ Academic Medicine 79, 6, 495–507.

Fuller, F.F. and Manning, B. A. (1973) ‘Self-confrontation reviewed: A conceptualization for video playback in teacher education.’ Review of Educational Research 43, 469-528.

Fukkink, R.G., Todd, L. and Kennedy, H. (2011) Video Interaction Guidance: Does it work? In H. Kennedy, M. Landor and L. Todd (eds) Video Interaction Guidance (pp. 82–104). London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Fukkink, R.G., Trienekens, N and Kramer, L.J.C. (2011) ‘Video feedback in education and training: Putting learning in the picture.’ Educational Psychology Review 23, 45-63. DOI 10.1007/s10648-010-9144-5.

Hargie, O., Saunders, C. and Dickson, D. (1983) Social Skills in Interpersonal Communication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Hosford, R.E. (1980) ‘Self-as-a-model: A cognitive, social-learning technique.’ Counseling Psychology 9, 1, 45-62.

Hulsman, R.L., Ros, W.J.G., Winnubst, J.A.M. and Bensing, J.M. (1999) ‘Teaching clinically experienced physicians’ communication skills. A review of evaluation studies.’ Medical Education 33, 655–668.

Thurlings, M., Vermeulen, M., Bastiaens, T. and Stijnen, S. (2013) ‘Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective.’ Educational Research Review 9, 1–15.

Tripp, T.R. and Rich, P.J. (2012) ‘The influence of video analysis on the process of teacher change.’ Teaching and Teacher Education 28, 728–739.

Schön, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action. London: Temple Smith.